Alnwick Castle

   Along with the other Northumberland fortresses of BAMBURGH and DUNSTANBURGH, Alnwick Castle demonstrated the insecurity of EDWARD IV’s throne by falling several times into Lancastrian hands between 1461 and 1464.
   After the Yorkist victory at the Battle of TOWTON in March 1461,Alnwick was one of several northern strongholds that remained under the control of RETAINERS loyal to the Lancastrian Percy family (see entries under Percy). The castle fell to Richard NEVILLE, earl of Warwick, in September, but was lost again in November to a Lancastrian raiding party from SCOTLAND under Sir William TAILBOYS. Realizing that the Northumberland fortresses were vulnerable so long as the Lancastrians could cross the border, Edward IV negotiated a three-month truce with Scotland to begin in June 1462. Edward used the ceasefire to retake the lost castles, with Alnwick falling in July after a short siege conducted by William HASTINGS, Lord Hastings, and Sir John HOWARD. Once again,Yorkist control of the fortress was short-lived, for in late October Alnwick capitulated to MARGARET OF ANJOU and her newly landed force of French MERCENARIES under Pierre de BRÉZÉ. The Lancastrian royal family and de Brézé retired to Scotland in November upon receiving news of an approaching Yorkist army. By early December 1462,Warwick was coordinating sieges of all three castles, with the Alnwick operation under the command of William NEVILLE, earl of Kent; Anthony WOODVILLE, Lord Scales; and John TIPTOFT, earl of Worcester. On 5 January 1463, a Scottish relief force under de Brézé and the Scottish earl of Angus appeared at Alnwick. Warwick, perhaps conscious of the low morale of his men, who had been maintaining a difficult siege in midwinter, declined to fight. Robert HUNGERFORD, Lord Hungerford, commander of the Alnwick garrison, marched his men out of the castle and withdrew into Scotland with de Brézé’s force.Warwick installed a Yorkist garrison in Alnwick, but Hungerford retook the castle in March when the Yorkist commander, Sir Ralph Grey, defected and allowed the Lancastrians to enter the fortress unopposed. By June,Warwick and his brother John NEVILLE, Lord Montagu, were again marching north. The Nevilles surprised a large Scottish army as it was besieging Norham Castle; the Scots force, which included not only JAMES III and his mother MARY OF GUELDRES, but also the Lancastrian royal family, fled in panic before the Yorkist army. This defeat cooled Scottish support for the Lancastrians and allowed the negotiation of a ten-month Anglo-Scottish truce in December.
   With Scotland thus neutralized, the Yorkists began a campaign to end Lancastrian activity in Northumberland once and for all. In April 1464, Montagu defeated a Lancastrian force under Henry BEAUFORT, duke of Somerset, at the Battle of HEDGELEY MOOR west of Alnwick. The Lancastrian survivors of that battle gathered at Alnwick, where, under the nominal leadership of HENRY VI himself, they reformed and marched out to again face Montagu. At the Battle of HEXHAM on 15 May, Montagu defeated and captured Somerset, while the demoralized remnants of Somerset’s force retreated to Alnwick, which they surrendered to Warwick on 23 June. Alnwick was henceforth Yorkist, and the Northumberland phase of the civil wars was over.
   Further Reading: Haigh, Philip A., The Military Campaigns of the Wars of the Roses (Stroud, Gloucestershire, UK: Sutton Publishing, 1995); Pollard, A. J., North-Eastern England during the Wars of the Roses (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990).

Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Roses. . 2001.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Alnwick Castle — is a castle and stately home in Alnwick, Northumberland, England and the residence of the Duke of Northumberland, built immediately following the Norman conquest, and renovated and remodelled a number of times. It is a Grade I listed building.… …   Wikipedia

  • Alnwick Castle — (ANN ick CAS el) In the year 1096 a baron by the name of Yvesde Vescy first built Alnwick Castle. It has been sieged upon, occupied, invaded, abandoned, restored, and added on to over the years by the nobility that have laid claim to it. Today… …   Encyclopedia of vampire mythology

  • Alnwick Castle — Das Schloss im Jahr 2009 Alnwick Castle ist eine Schlossanlage in englischen Alnwick, Northumberland. Es ist nach Windsor Castle der zweitgrößte Adelssitz Englands[1] und der Stammsitz der Familie Percy, deren Angehörige seit Beginn des 14.… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Alnwick Castle (1901) — p1 Alnwick Castle p1 Schiffsdaten Flagge Vereinigtes Konigreich …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • HMS Alnwick Castle (K405) — was a Castle class corvette of the United Kingdom s Royal Navy. She was named after Alnwick Castle in Northumberland.She was laid down on 12 June 1943 and launched by George Brown and Company at Greenock in Scotland on 23 May 1944. She was… …   Wikipedia

  • Alnwick — infobox UK place static static image caption = The town of Alnwick, nestling behind Alnwick Castle country = England official name= Alnwick latitude= 55.4100 longitude= 1.7054 population = 7,600 shire district= Alnwick region= North East England… …   Wikipedia

  • Alnwick (district) — Infobox UK district name = Alnwick status = District region = North East England admincounty = Northumberland area = Ranked 21st 1,079.51 km² adminhq = Alnwick onscode = 35UB population = Ranked English district rank|ONS=35UB English district… …   Wikipedia

  • Alnwick — 55.4099174 1.698761 Koordinaten: 55° 25′ N, 1° 42′ W …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Castle class corvette — The Castle class corvettes were an updated version of the much more numerous Flower class corvettes of the Royal Navy, and started appearing during late 1943. They were equipped with radar as well as asdic.The Admiralty had decided to cease… …   Wikipedia

  • ALNWICK —    the county town of Northumberland, on the Aln; at the north entrance is Alnwick Castle, the seat of the Duke of Northumberland, one of the most magnificent structures of the kind in England, and during the Border wars a place of great strength …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.